In 1913 Eoin MacNeill formed the Irish Volunteers to defend Home Rule. James Connolly founded the Irish Citizen Army.
In April 1914 Ulster Volunteers import 35,000 German rifles for a revolt if Home Rule is passed.
In July 1914 Irish Volunteers do likewise, importing 900 old German rifles off the Asgard at Howth in support of Home Rule.
In August 1915 Pádraig Pearse tells a huge crowd at the funeral of Jeremiah O’Donovan Rossa that “Ireland unfree shall never be at peace”.